- D3.1 explain the phases in the process of meiosis in terms of cell division, the movement of chromosomes, and crossing over of genetic material.
- D3.2 explain the concepts of DNA, genes, chromosomes, alleles, mitosis, and meiosis, and how they account for the transmission of hereditary characteristics according to Mendelian laws of inheritance.
- D3.3 explain the concepts of genotype, phenotype, dominance, incomplete dominance, codominance, recessiveness, and sex linkage according to Mendelian laws of inheritance.
- D3.4 describe some genetic disorders caused by chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., non-disjunction of chromosomes during meiosis) or other genetic mutations in terms of chromosomes affected, physical effects, and treatments.
- D3.5 describe some reproductive technologies (e.g., cloning, artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, recombinant DNA), and explain how their use can increase the genetic diversity of a species (e.g., farm animals, crops).