WEBVTT 1 00:00:00.388 --> 00:00:04.958 Childbirth generally takes place at the end of nine months of pregnancy. 2 00:00:04.959 --> 00:00:09.373 In most cases, the mother is helped by a midwife or obstetrician. 3 00:00:09.374 --> 00:00:12.325 The fetus floats in the amniotic fluid. 4 00:00:12.326 --> 00:00:16.243 It is connected to the placenta by the umbilical cord. 5 00:00:16.244 --> 00:00:19.404 Its position indicates that it is ready to be born 6 00:00:19.405 --> 00:00:22.826 its head is facing down in its mother’s pelvis. 7 00:00:22.827 --> 00:00:24.916 Childbirth begins with labor. 8 00:00:24.917 --> 00:00:29.644 This is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions of the uterine wall 9 00:00:29.645 --> 00:00:31.734 the myometrium. 10 00:00:31.735 --> 00:00:37.872 At the beginning, the contractions come about every ten minutes. They are quite short. 11 00:00:37.873 --> 00:00:42.235 Then both their frequency and duration progressively increase. 12 00:00:42.236 --> 00:00:45.631 The fetus is pushed towards the bottom of the uterus 13 00:00:45.632 --> 00:00:48.426 where its head pushes down on the cervix. 14 00:00:52.371 --> 00:00:56.106 Then the cervix shortens and begins to dilate. 15 00:00:56.107 --> 00:01:00.442 Dilatation is completed when it has reached ten cm. 16 00:01:03.500 --> 00:01:08.801 It is usually at this moment that the waters break. The amniotic fluid leaks out. 17 00:01:10.135 --> 00:01:16.586 Labour is over. It can last on average between seven or eight hours for a first birth. 18 00:01:16.587 --> 00:01:22.542 The following step is the delivery of the fetus. It is much faster, about thirty minutes. 19 00:01:24.815 --> 00:01:30.953 Contractions now come every two minutes. They last about one minute and are very intense. 20 00:01:30.954 --> 00:01:34.245 However, the mother needs to help the fetus to move 21 00:01:34.246 --> 00:01:38.006 by voluntarily contracting her abdominal muscles. 22 00:01:38.007 --> 00:01:42.839 The head of the fetus moves into the vagina and rotates at the same time. 23 00:01:42.840 --> 00:01:46.130 It starts to come out and lifts up. 24 00:01:46.131 --> 00:01:50.676 Then the midwife or the doctor grabs the baby by the head and turns it 25 00:01:50.677 --> 00:01:59.218 so that the first shoulder comes out, then the second one, and finally the whole body. 26 00:01:59.219 --> 00:02:01.360 This is birth. 27 00:02:01.361 --> 00:02:03.319 The umbilical cord is cut. 28 00:02:03.320 --> 00:02:08.570 On the baby’s stomach, the scar left by the umbilical cord will become the navel. 29 00:02:10.190 --> 00:02:13.245 Giving birth is not quite over for the mother. 30 00:02:13.246 --> 00:02:19.097 In fact, a few minutes after the delivery of the fetus, the contractions begin again. 31 00:02:19.098 --> 00:02:22.676 Helped by the doctor, the mother delivers the placenta.